A noun is a word that refers to a person, place, thing or idea. It is a part of speech that is used to name or identify people, places, things and ideas. In a sentence, a noun can function as the subject, object or complement.
Types of nounexamples
Persondoctor, teacher, athlete, musician, writer, Tom
Placecity, beach, mountain, restaurant, library
Thingtable, computer, bicycle, umbrella, television
Ideafreedom, love, courage, democracy, justice

Common Nouns and Proper Nouns

A common noun is a type of noun that refers to a general class of people, places, things, or ideas, rather than a specific individual or entity. It is the opposite of a proper noun, which refers to a specific and unique individual or entity and is always capitalized. Common nouns are not capitalized unless they appear at the beginning of a sentence. They allow us to refer to general categories of things without needing to specify individual entities every time we use them.

Examples of Common and Proper Nouns

Common NounProper Noun
cityNew York City
bookTo Kill a Mockingbird
carTesla Model S
actorMeryl Streep


1) My friend John loves to visit New York City.

friend - common noun

John - proper noun

New York City - proper noun

2) The book Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone is a classic.

book - common noun

Harry Potter - proper noun

Philosopher's Stone - proper noun

3) My favorite fruit is the Granny Smith apple.

fruit - common noun

Granny Smith - proper noun

apple - common noun

4) The famous scientist Albert Einstein was born in Germany.

scientist - common noun

Albert Einstein - proper noun

Germany - proper noun

5) I am wearing a shirt made by Nike.

shirt - common noun

Nike - proper noun

Types of Noun

Apart from being classified as an Common noun or Proper noun, a noun may also be categorized as one of the following:

1) Concrete Noun

2) Abstract Noun

3) Countable Noun

4) Uncountable Noun

5) Collective Noun

6) Possessive Noun

7) Compound Noun

1) Concrete Noun

A concrete noun refers to a physical object that can be seen, touched, felt, heard, or tasted. These nouns are tangible and can be perceived through the senses.

Examples of concrete nouns include objects such as chair, book, car, pen, apple, and dog.

Here's an example sentence with a concrete noun:

I need a glass of water to quench my thirst.

In this sentence, "glass" is the concrete noun because it refers to a physical object that can be seen and touched.


1) My sister adopted a cute puppy.

2) The children were playing in the park.

3) She wore a beautiful necklace to the party.

4) I need to buy some fresh vegetables for dinner.

5) The old book on the shelf was covered in dust.

2) Abstract Noun

An abstract noun refers to a concept or idea that is intangible and cannot be perceived through the senses.

Here are a few examples of abstract nouns: Love, Happiness, Justice, Freedom, Honesty

Here's an example sentence with an abstract noun:

The concept of freedom is important in any democratic society.

In this sentence, "freedom" is the abstract noun because it refers to an idea that cannot be seen or touched.


1) She had a strong belief in justice.

2) His fear of failure kept him from trying new things.

3) The artist's work was filled with creativity and imagination.

4) The teacher's patience was greatly appreciated by the students.

5) The team's success was due to their hard work and perseverance.

3) Countable Noun

A countable noun is a type of noun that refers to objects or things that can be counted as individual units or discrete items. They can be singular or plural, and they have a specific number.

Here are a few examples of countable nouns: books, cars, apples, chairs, pens, computers.

Here's an example sentence with an abstract noun:

I bought three books at the bookstore today.

In this sentence, "books" is a countable noun, as it is referring to individual units that can be counted, and "three" indicates the specific number of books that were purchased.


1) The store sells many different types of shoes.

2) I need to buy a new book for my class.

3) We saw several deer in the field.

4) He ate three slices of pizza for lunch.

5) She owns four cats and two dogs

4) Uncountable Noun

An uncountable noun is a type of noun that refers to things that cannot be counted or measured as discrete units, such as substances or concepts.

Here are a few examples of Uncountable nouns: water, love, information, furniture, milk.

Here's an example sentence with an Uncountable noun:

My mother gave me some advice before I started my new job.

In this sentence, "advice" is an uncountable noun, as it refers to a concept or idea that cannot be counted.


1) I need to buy some new furniture for my apartment.

2) Would you like some water with your meal?

3) He has a lot of experience working in the field of marketing.

4) My mother makes the best soup in town.

5) The company produces a lot of waste during the manufacturing process.

5) Collective Noun

A collective noun refers to a group of people, animals, or things considered as a single entity. For example: "family" refers to a group of individuals related by blood or marriage, and "flock" refers to a group of birds.

Collective NounMeaning
Teama group of people working together towards a common goal, such as a sports team or a work team
Herda group of animals, such as cattle, deer, or elephants
Fleeta group of vehicles, such as cars, ships, or airplanes
Banda group of musicians who perform together
Committeea group of people appointed or elected to make decisions or take action on a specific issue


1) The team is working hard to prepare for the championship game.

2) A herd of cattle was grazing in the field.

3) The jury has reached a verdict in the trial.

4) The staff at the hospital are trained to handle emergencies.

5) The flock of birds took flight as the sun began to set.

6) Possessive Noun

A possessive noun is a type of noun that shows ownership or possession. It is formed by adding an apostrophe (') and "s" to the end of the noun (or just an apostrophe for plural nouns ending in "s").

Here are few examples:

Mary's car - the car belongs to Mary

The dog's tail - the tail belongs to the dog

The company's profits - the profits belong to the company

In each of these examples, the possessive noun indicates that something belongs to someone or something else. The apostrophe and "s" show that the noun is possessive.


1) Sarah's car is parked in the driveway.

2) The company's profits have increased significantly this quarter.

3) John's favorite book is "To Kill a Mockingbird."

4) The dog's leash was left on the porch.

5) The restaurant's menu features a variety of vegetarian options.

7) Compound Noun

A compound noun is a noun that is made up of two or more words. These words can be combined to create a new word with a new meaning.

Here are some examples of compound nouns:

Bookshelf: a piece of furniture used for storing books

Toothbrush: a tool used for cleaning teeth

Raincoat: a coat worn to protect from rain

Football: a game played with a ball and feet

Traffic jam: a situation in which vehicles are heavily congested and moving slowly

In each of these examples, two words are combined to create a new noun that has a specific meaning. The first word in the compound noun modifies the second word to give it a more specific meaning.


1) The babysitter put the children to bed.

2) The baseball game was postponed due to rain.

3) I need to buy a new toothbrush.

4) The newspaper article caused quite a controversy.

5) The traffic jam lasted for hours.